Hi, everybody. Please excuse my lack of knowledge on the subject I am asking about. As far as I know, you are not able to set up WPA encryption on your laptop in a wifi hotspot(unless of course the owner tells you the router's MAC address and passphrase). However, I was wondering what exactly the WPA does. I read that it supposedly encrypts all the so-called "data" that you send out(specifically for web browsing, downloading, etc.), and makes anyone trying to connect to your computer(and therefore your network) need to input the correct passphrase. If this is the case, isn't there some sort of software that could also encrypt your outbound data in the same way on a hotspot, but without actually setting up an encrypted network between your computer and a router(or access point)? I am guessing that if there is, then it would probably only encrypt outbound "data", and not protect you from people trying to access your computer. I have read about VPNs, TOR, etc., but as far as I can understand, these only try to mask your IP/identity. They also say that they "tunnel data," but doesn't all web traffic have to make "hops" anyway? So how would they "tunnel data," unless that company had a physical line running straight from your computer to their server? I welcome any number of responses on this subject, and I would appreciate any help anyone can offer. Thank you very much!